The Logic

Logic is the science of necessary inference.
Reason is the power and function of grasping necessary inference.

The Logic Classroom is a course in Basic Logic. Each Study has Review Questions, Exercises, and Answers to the Exercises. The Logic Classroom does not sell, advertise any product or service, or solicit funds. It is dedicated to the study and mastery of Logic.  The Logic Classroom's purpose is the study of valid (and invalid) deductive inferences in arguments.

I want to thank Dr. Elihu Carranza for giving me the honor of maintaining the Logic Classroom's presence on the Internet by letting me provide it a new home on my domain ( This is not a new or improved Logic Classroom - it is essentially the same Logic Classroom created by Dr Carranza. I have preserved its contents with very few changes. In addition to the comments on this page, the only edits I've have made so far are a matter formatting the CSS styles and layout and additional links. Dr. Carranza's has the copyright for the studies and exercises, but I will be responsible for any future corrections, additions, or revisions. If you have any suggestions, or notice any thing that needs to be fixed, please feel free to e-mail me at .